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In this chapter, we explore the chemical elements that make up minerals. Starting with the Big Bang and the creation of the elements, we move on to atomic structure, electron orbitals, and ionic radii to understand how the elements combine to form minerals (and how these same properties determine the color of minerals). Finally, we study the many different ways elements combine by considering chemical substitution and the effects of temperature and pressure during mineral formation.
Topics covered in Chapter 7 include: The Big Bang Atomic Structure Size Color in Minerals Chemical Substitution Phase Diagrams